Contents ] RedAdmiral ] PaintedLady ] CloudedYellow ] [ Comma ] Monarch ] 

comma    <>   polygonia c-album   <>   camóg

© Deirdre Hardiman     

Family:   Nymphalidae

  The Comma is widespread in Europe and seen frequently in Britain except in the north.  Has now become an established resident in the south-east of Ireland, especially in parts of CosWexford and Carlow.
  Woods, tall hedges, hedged lanes.
Larval Food Plant:    Hop  Humulus lupulus
                                              Nettles  Urtica spp.
                                              Elm  Ulmus spp.    
Flight Time:   The first confirmed report from the south of Ireland was in August 2000 when two or three Commas were seen at the Raven, Co Wexford.
Hibernation:    Adults emergence from hibernation in March.  



© Deirdre Hardiman  



Life Cycle of  the Comma


The green spherical egg measures c. 0.8 mm high and is laid singly, usually at the edge of the upperside
of a leaf of the foodplant.  It hatches in c.17 days.

 © Deirdre Hardiman 


The young larva lives and feeds on the under surface of  the leaf  but,  later on, feeds on the upper surface  where 
it resembles a bird dropping.

 © Deirdre Hardiman 


The pupa is suspended from a silk pad,  sometimes spun on the foodplant but more often concealed deep
among vegetation.  This stage lasts c.15 days, depending on the temperature, after which the adult emerges.

 © Deirdre Hardiman 


After emerging, the adults are seen on the wing in spring after overwintering  and the later summer
generation  is seen  during July and August.  These go on to hibernate under suitable conditions 
emerging the following spring.  Some of the individual seen during the season are likely to be newly arrived migrants.

The Comma is easily identifiable by the ragged outline of  it wings and the white "C" shape on the underside
of  each hindwing.



 Contents ]

 RedAdmiral ] PaintedLady ] CloudedYellow ] [ Comma ] Monarch ] 

Hesperidae ] Pieridae ] Lycaenidae ] Nymphalidae ] Satyridae ] Migrants ] .